Planning

Summary

Driver description
Interactions within the Social Domain
Interactions with the Economy Domain

Interactions with the Environment Domain
Interactions with the Technology Domain

Impacts on Mobility and Transport

Driver description

  • “Planning is a rational decision making process that starts analyzing the system (and understanding its behaviour), and efficiently assigning some resources according to some objectives in a future scenario. Good planning is based on systematic processes of generation and appraisal of alternatives to meet the objectives.” (Ref: CO_5005)
  • “A clear physical delineation between urban and rural zones does not mean that urban and rural development issues should be treated separately. On the contrary, there needs to be a coordinated and integrated approach that involves all relevant planning authorities (...) as well as other stakeholders and their organisations. Strong planning legislation and an open governance process are key to this approach.” (Ref: CO_5027)
  • “Many public services have been progressively centralised with a view to increasing efficiency. The distances between citizens and service providers (schools, hospitals, shopping malls) have been on the increase. Firms have followed the same trend by keeping a smaller number of production, storage and distribution centres. When taking land-use planning or location decisions, public authorities and companies should take into account the consequences of their choices in terms of travel needs of clients and employees in addition to the transport of goods.” (Ref: CO_0015)
  • “Transport, urban planning, business, public services, energy and food supply can no longer be considered in isolation. We need to create truly integrated systems where people have choice, flexibility and seamless connectivity. When people travel, they should be able to connect much more smoothly and quickly between different modes of transport. Increasingly, there will also be a need to supplement this physical connectivity with online connectivity: the ability to check information before, and during, travel will allow people to optimise their journeys, and perhaps even substitute a degree of physical movement with virtual access to lifestyle needs.” (Ref: CO_5018)
  • “A Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan is a Strategic plan designed to satisfy the mobility needs of people and businesses in cities and their surroundings for a better quality of life. It builds on existing planning practices and takes due consideration of integration, participation, and evaluation principles.” (Ref: CO_0101)
  • “Sustainable mobility for people and goods in urban environments is one of the most challenging tasks in the development of the cities of tomorrow. Delivering an energy efficient, reliable and integrated transport system, is therefore fundamental and must be integrated in all urban developments.” (Ref: CO_5034)
  • “Some key principles of sustainable urban development, such as land use integration and minimum density of building, ensure a critical mass of mobility demand (in turn facilitating a good supply of urban public transport) while also promoting self-restraint in a local environment that may be achievable with ecomobility and traffic pacifying measures.” (Ref: CO_5005)
  • “Development of the public transport system must be made a spearhead goal of transport policy in both national decision-making and decision-making in urban regions.” (Ref: CO_0004)
  • “Public transport should be designed to be competitive with private vehicles in door-to-door time and quality (reliability, comfort, etc.).” (Ref: CO_5005)
  • “Promote non-motorised transport as full and adequate transport modes on a social and economic level that merit privileges and positive discrimination in urban and other dense structures.” (Ref: CO_5006)

Interactions within the Social Domain

Households structure and distribution

  • “(...) urban planning has to ensure that inner-city neighbourhoods meet the requirements of these potential new inhabitants (e.g. high-income households, families, older people etc.), while at the same time avoiding unwanted gentrification.” (Ref: CO_0079)

Urbanisation

  • “Active urban redevelopment and renewal policies in many urban areas seem to be having some success in reversing the depopulation and decay of urban centres.” (Ref: CO_5048)
  • “Economic inefficiency is also associated with the market orientated planning regimes that frequently generate sprawling urban areas. Market orientated land use allocations driving urban expansion and the transformation of economic activity often result in the abandonment of former industrial areas. As a result, there are many derelict or underused former industrial zones throughout Europe. In Spain about 50 % of sites contaminated from past industrial activities are located in urban areas (1999), and in Austria it is estimated that abandoned industrial sites cover about 2 % of all urban areas (2004).” (Ref: CO_0028)
  • “Containing urban areas or setting a clear spatial boundary between urban and rural land, coupled with integrated spatial or territorial policies and strategies, are the most important means for managing urban growth.” (Ref: CO_5027)

Change of lifestyle and values

  • “Although planning and technology can do a lot to improve mobility, many of our future challenges are shaped by people’s values, behaviour and preferences. As well as switching from cars to more low-carbon vehicles, cities need to think about ways in which mass behaviour and social norms can be influenced to get people to think beyond their current patterns of travel and ways of living. In fact, because of increasing urbanisation, cities need to be the key players in promoting low-carbon, healthier lifestyles. The most effective governments and businesses will engage in early planning to influence lifestyles rather than simply relying on additional road infrastructure and modes of transport.” (Ref: CO_5018)
  • “(...) decision-makers and developers must have the will to concentrate development into units of sufficient size so as to ensure the front-loaded supply of good public transport services to residents in areas of new development. If the residents of new areas are allowed to grow accustomed to passenger car use because public transport is not yet available, changes in travel behaviour are much more difficult to effect at a later stage through improvements in public transport services.” (Ref: CO_0004)

Health

  • “(...) health and social concerns also need to be integrated into the design and management of urban polices. Urban planning which takes account of urban poverty and health issues will promote the accessibility of the poor to basic environmental services as well as to green space, which will eventually contribute to social cohesion as well.” (Ref: CO_5009)

Interactions with the Economy Domain

Employment

  • “(...) the siting of employment, retail and leisure centres outside urban areas, for instance around motorway junctions, undermines the economic viability of the city centre as a commercial district, encourages car use and excludes citizens who do not have access to a car from these jobs and services.” (Ref: CO_0096)

Regional differences in economics

  • “A functioning public transport system strengthens the competitiveness of the urban region and of busi­ness.” (Ref: CO_0004)

Availability of public and private resources and investments in the transport sector

  • “The State and municipalities must allocate sufficient human and financial resources to the devel­opment and maintenance of a system responsible for passenger transport throughout the region.” (Ref: CO_0004)
  • “The city is portrayed as selecting its transport system from along a continuum of money cost/time cost choices. A road network has a high money cost, which includes the cost of automobile operation, but a low time cost, while a slow but resource-efficient public transit system has the opposite characteristics.” (Ref: CO_4015)

Interactions with the Environment domain

Climate change impacts

  • “Planning rules and regulations balance a complex range of economic, social, and environmental objectives. However, their design and implementation can have important implications for mitigating climate change and also has the potential to influence the resilience to the impacts of climate change, for example, in the management of flood risks or water scarcity” (Ref: CO_2024)
  • “In many cities throughout developing countries, populations continue to grow in the absence of effective urban planning, resulting in living conditions that exacerbate climate change impacts and development in areas at risk from sea-level rise, flooding and coastal storms.” (Ref: CO_0147)
  • “Urban governance and planning can improve resilience to climate change impacts through targeted financing of adaptation, broad institutional strengthening, and minimizing the drivers of vulnerability. Urban areas with weak governance systems – as a result of political instability, exclusion of climate change from the political agenda, or lack of governmental resources – are especially vulnerable to climate change impacts.” (Ref: CO_0147)

GHG mitigation

  • “Densification of land use may be the most effective way to reduce the use of GHG intensive modes of travel. Research shows that residents in more densely populated areas and in areas with better mixes of land uses tend to emit far less GHG emissions from their travel. They tend to walk more, use public transportation more and drive less. Policies aimed at increasing density and influencing local governments to make land use development and zoning decisions based on likely impact on GHG emissions, could be highly effective at reducing emissions.” (Ref: CO_0148)
  • “Commitments to GHG-reduction: Local authorities will be obliged to optimise and renew their communal fleets (green fleets) and introduce mobility management measures to mainstream TDM[1] and climate protection measures.” (Ref: CO_5006)

[1] Transport Demand Management

Energy availability, production and consumption

  • “Urban design and land use planning regulations have the potential to facilitate a less energy intensive society, while balancing a range of wider economic and social objectives.” (Ref: CO_2024)

Interactions with the Technology Domain

Technology development in general and innovation diffusion

  • “Public transport objectives are defined in the shared visions and strate­gies that are implemented in all activities in the urban region, from city planning to financial planning and urban development. An innovative operating environ­ment should be created for the development of private sector services. This shares innovation process, where the objectives for cooperation between public and pri­vate sector have distinct roles. The process advances from ideas and plans based on user requirements and anticipation of technology through new product concepts to the deployment and monitoring of new services and modes of operation. Monitoring seeks to obtain information about e.g. matters relating to the effectiveness of development efforts and passenger approval.”(Ref: CO_0004)

Pollution abatement and monitoring

  • “The major contribution of urban emissions to urban scale pollution was confirmed which showed the need to address the design of air quality abatement strategies on an urban scale.” (Ref: CO_0229)

Impacts on Mobility and Transport

The potentials in the strict relationship between planning and transport system should be enhanced

  • “The integration of spatial planning, transport and environmental policies is particularly crucial because they are so closely related. Land use policies need to take account of travel time, car dependency, greenfield use, access to goods and services, air pollution, noise, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption. Spatial policies sometimes influence transport variables much more than transport policy itself does.” (Ref: CO_5009)
  • “Travel demand can be reduced which in turn can reduce transport intensity in many of the subsectors by integrated land-use planning, high-density development, and improved public transit.” (Ref: CO_5046)
  • “The City and County of Lyon, for example, has developed a dedicated city planning strategy by which permissions for new buildings will only be granted for already existing neighborhoods or directly adjacent to public transport lines, to limit the need for individual cars.” (Ref: CO_0284)

Key role of planning in developing adequate public transport networks

  •  “In addition, land use controls such as restrictions on the availability and pricing of parking spaces, the use of pedestrian zones and parks, and land use zonal strategies (including congestion charging), have the potential to support integrated public transport to reduce the use of private motor vehicles.” (Ref: CO_2024)
  • “It is particularly important to anticipate future needs correctly because transport planning decisions can be self-fulfilling. For example, if we expect automobile transport to be dominant, we will devote most transportation resources to expanding roads and parking facilities, and locate destinations for automobile access, creating the predicted travel patterns. Because roadway capacity expansion is costly and tends to fill with generated traffic, such projects could consume virtually any allocation of resources. However, if we expect demand to become more diverse we will implement different policies, helping to create a more balanced transport system.” (Ref: CO_5047)
  • “If the urban network is Rapid Transit-based, with adequate coverage throughout the central area and close suburbs, having at least one station close to each major activity zone with good connectivity among lines requiring no more than one transfer and convenient transfer between lines, then the urban network is called ‘ubiquitous’ and most of the travellers’ needs may be fulfilled in a sustainable manner. The Paris Metro network is an example of this. It covers the entire urban area well: no point within the central city is more than 500 m from a metro station. Munich, Madrid and some other capital cities also have many elements of the ubiquitous network pattern.” (Ref: CO_5004)