Education

Summary

Driver description
Interactions within the Social Domain
Interactions with the Economy Domain

Interactions with the Environment Domain
Interactions with the Technology Domain
Impacts on Mobility and Transport

Driver description

  • “Better education reduces risk of poverty, eases participation in the labour market and is key to economic growth” (Ref: CO_0197)
  • “In the EU, the share of adults of working age with at most lower secondary education declined between 2000 and 2010, improving possibilities for personal and professional development.” (Ref: CO_0197)
  • “The prevalence of low educational attainment[1] in the EU differs between age groups. In 2000, 35.6 % of 25 to 64-year-olds had at most lower secondary education; ten years later their share declined to 27.3 %. The respective shares for people aged 65 and over were higher and amounted to 59.9 % in 2010. In both age groups the percentages have steadily fallen. The relative decline was greater for the 25 to 64-year-olds than for the over-65s.” (Ref: CO_0197)

[1] The indicator defines the percentage of the population having reached UNESCO’s International

Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) level of 2 or less (lower secondary education at most). (Ref: CO_0197)

  • “Reasons for this favourable trend include intensified training of adults and, above all, the presence of a cohort effect: younger people, especially younger women, tend to have better education, and as they grow older the prevalence of low educational attainment in a given age group declines.” (Ref: CO_0197)
  • “In all the IPROSEC countries, the proportion of young people aged 15–24 in education or training has increased over the past 20 years. In general, Nordic countries register the highest proportion of young people in education or training, whereas the figures are lower in the southern European countries. The percentage of women aged 15–24 in education or training exceeds that of men in all EU IPROSEC countries, except in Germany (...) .This was not the case in the 1960s and 1970s. In 2000, the proportion varied from 53.6% in Italy to 69.7% in Germany for men, and from 58.3 % in Italy to 70.4 % in Sweden for women. The gap between men and women is particularly large in Spain (+ 7.6) in Sweden (+5.4) and Italy (+4.7), in favour of women. Everywhere except Germany, women exceed the number of men in higher education. The largest difference is found in Estonia, Sweden and Poland.” (Ref: CO_0083)

Interactions within the Social Domain

Migration flows

  • “Within countries, education attainment continues to determine who moves and who does not—certainly from rural areas to cities. People with more education are more likely to migrate in their own country. Many temporary, seasonal migrants with little or no education also migrate. But education boosts the velocity of labour mobility, by opening employment opportunities farther afield and shortening the job search at migrants’ destination.” (Ref: CO_5028)
  • “Education also increases the likelihood of people moving abroad. The international migration of skilled workers relative to that of unskilled workers has been rising since the 1970s for every developing world region.” (Ref: CO_5028)
  • “Student migration has become particularly important in some parts of the EU, with generally young adults migrating to take part in university courses and other educational opportunities. Although student migration may be seen as essentially temporary in nature, significant numbers remain within the destination country after the end of their studies either as labour migrants or following family formation with a person resident in the destination country.” (Ref: CO_0066)

Income structure and distribution

  • “Moving towards a knowledge intensive society in the global economy is associated with increasing economic growth, economic integration and major economic restructuring. In mature European economies there has been a shift from manufacturing, which provided relatively well paid and regular employment for people with medium levels of skills, to services, where employment is more polarised between highly paid professional and managerial work and more routine manual service work.” (Ref: CO_5026)
  • “Economic restructuring, innovation and a highly educated and well trained workforce are critical to the development of a competitive, smart, knowledge economy (“Europe 2020”) but these economic, employment and educational changes are associated with wage polarisation, primarily due to the expansion of earnings at the top of the distribution relative to those lower down and the inability of labour (especially lower paid labour) to capture an adequate share of productivity gains as findings from INEQ, RESIST, LoWER3 and EQUALSOC show.” (Ref: CO_5026)

Change of lifestyle and values

  • “Education for both children and adults regarding the causes and effects of climate change may change behaviour to a certain extent, as witnessed in the increasing popularity of fair-trade and 'green' products, and carbon-offsetting schemes.” (Ref: CO_5031)

Interactions with the Economy Domain

Employment

  • “Employment rates rise everywhere with the level of education (...). The employment rate for women aged 25–49 with higher education ranged from 73.8% in Spain to 86.6% in the UK, where men with higher levels of education also have a higher level of employment. Employment rates are more dispersed for women with a lower education level (compulsory schooling): for women aged 25–49, they ranged from 40.5% in Spain to 63.5 % in Sweden in 2000.” (Ref: CO_0083)
  • “The employment rate is greater for those with higher education levels. Since 2000, more than four-fifths of 25 to 64 year olds with a tertiary-level educational qualification have been employed compared with less than half of those with lower secondary education. The relative employment rates for the different education subgroups have evolved in parallel over time. People with lower education levels were the most vulnerable to job losses, which may be explained by loss of jobs in sectors largely requiring lower qualification, e.g. the construction sectors of Spain, UK and Ireland. In 2009, the employment of people with completed primary and lower secondary education fell by 4.0 %, for those with upper and post-secondary education it fell by 2.1 %, and for those with tertiary education it fell by 1.2 %. The decreases in employment rate continued in 2010.” (Ref: CO_0197)
  • “Unemployment can be caused by other drivers of social exclusion such as ill-health, low educational attainment and lack of skills.” (Ref: CO_0176)

Availability of public and private resources and investments in the transport sector

  • “Mobility behaviour can be influenced through information and promotion campaigns which are aimed at developing sustainable mobility behaviour among the citizens without any additional infrastructure investment.” (Ref: CO_0199)

Interactions with the Environment Domain

GHG mitigation

  • “Scientific knowledge has also been significant in the development of local inventories and forecasts of GHG emissions.” (Ref: CO_0147)
  • “Information instruments (e.g. awareness campaigns) may positively affect environmental quality by promoting informed choices and possibly contributing to behavioural change, however, their impact on emissions has not been measured yet.” (Ref: CO_0146)
  • “To achieve 60-80% GHG reductions in the transportation sector, a major research effort will be needed to overcome these limitations and to provide sound information that will help reduce transportation GHG. Research is needed to inform multiple audiences, at multiple levels, and for a wide range of GHG reduction strategies.” (Ref: CO_0149)

Interactions with the Technology Domain

Technology development in general and innovation diffusion

  • “Human resources are crucial both to the development and application of technology. Certainly, some inventions have been made by individuals with little education — but today the majority of inventions are made by those with substantial education in science or technology. The reduction of inventions to commercial application usually also requires skilled entrepreneurs and, depending on the particular field, skilled mechanics, lab technicians, or software writers.” (Ref: CO_2013)
  • “Apart from sporadic initiatives there are no signs of education to incorporate the real potentialof ICT.” (Ref: CO_2018)
  • “Consumer adoption of technology has been noted to occur in five stages—innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards—which are generally differentiated on the basis of innovativeness, or “the degree to which an individual or other unit of adoption is relatively earlier in adopting new ideas than other members of a social system” (Rogers 1995). Influencing factors on this innovativeness may also include demographic characteristics (including age and education) and prior experience with technology (Munnukka 2007).” (Ref: CO_0164)
  • “(...) there are significant divides between people with different levels of education, employment status, age and ethnic minority membership.” (Ref: CO_2018)
  • “Most research of digital media access, that often deals with the so-called digital divide shows that there is a strong correlation between access and personal or positional characteristics of people. Primarily education, age and societal position appear to be important. People that need ICT for their work or education have a much higher chance of having physical access.” (Ref: CO_2018)
  • “The biggest access problems are now a lack of digital skills and very unequal use, both in time and in type of applications. Four types of digital skills can be distinguished. First we have operational skills; the popular expression is ‘button knowledge’. Then we have formal skills. Every medium has particular formal characteristics. Regarding the internet one has to learn to browse and to navigate using hyperlinks. The third type of skill is information skills: the ability to search, select and evaluate information in computers and on the Net. The last type of (so-called ‘higher’) digital skills is strategic skills: using computers and the Internet as a means to reach a particular personal or professional goal. Information and strategic skills appear to cause the biggest problems. Only a minority of Internet users master them sufficiently.” (Ref: CO_2018)
  • “Rising levels of education together with increased per capita incomes in many parts of the world mean that demand for new products is growing, leading to shorter product innovation cycles.” (Ref: CO_0274)
  • “Social media is used mostly by a young generation, at an age where they would move from public to private transport. Therefore, any tool which directly targets this (difficult to reach) market should be maximised in order to connect with this crucial group of future customers.” (Ref: CO_0290)

Information systems

  • “What kind of traveller is relatively prone to acquire information? The literature states that male, highly educated, high-income travellers (e.g. Petrella and Lappin, 2004) are more likely than others to use travel information, as well as professionals (Emmerink et al., 1996), as groups these appear to attach greater importance to making an accurate choice (Hato et al., 1999)(...) Regarding the awareness of ATIS services (Goulias et al., 2004), it was found that professionals in general, higher income and younger persons are more likely to be aware of all kinds of ATIS, as are car owners and owners of a bus pass.” (Ref: CO_5038)

Impacts on Mobility and Transport

Education concerning sustainable mobility is increasing in importance and diffusion

  •  “Education, information and awareness-raising campaigns will play an important role in influencing future consumer behaviour and facilitating sustainable mobility choices. Transport policies have a very direct impact on people’s lives and tend to be highly controversial: citizens should be given better information on the reasoning behind policy decisions and on the available alternatives. A better understanding of the challenges ahead is a precondition for public acceptance of the solutions.” (Ref: CO_0015)
  •  “There are other factors that may help shift consumer preferences toward more multimodal transportation systems. For example, experts and individuals are increasingly concerned about the health impacts of a sedentary lifestyle. Market surveys indicate that consumers increasingly value opportunities to walk and bicycle in their communities.” (Ref: CO_5047)

…but lack of data and proper campaigns are still hindering public transport modes’ acceptability

  • “Transport users, customers of equipment and even operators may not have the ability of making truly informed decisions for lack of relevant, correct and well presented data. Wrong perception or uncertainty may also influence decisions, as, for example, in the case of the overestimation of waiting times for public transport.” (Ref: CO_0089)

There is an impending need to invest in education for future generations

  •  “<Children need our utmost attention when it comes to traffic. We need to adequately prepare them for a responsible integration with traffic.> Jan Mücke” (Ref: CO_5019)