Advanced Driving Devices

Summary

Driver description
Interactions with the Technology Domain
Interactions within the Social Domain
Interactions with the Economy Domain
Interactions with the Environment Domain
Impacts on Mobility and Transport

Driver description

  • “Advanced Driver Assistance Systems represent a wide range of systems designed to help the driver, making the driving process safer and more efficient. When designed with a safe Human-Machine Interface (HMI) they should improve car safety and road safety in general. Examples of such systems include: adaptive cruise control; adaptive light control; automatic parking; blind spot detection; collision avoidance system (pre-crash system); driver drowsiness detection; intelligent speed adaptation or intelligent speed advice; in-vehicle navigation systems (typically GPS and TMC for providing upto- date traffic information); lane change assistance; lane departure warning systems; night vision; pedestrian protection systems; traffic sign recognition, etc.” (Ref: CO_0281)
  • “Other examples of driving support functions available on the market or at an advanced stage of development are: Night vision: infra-red cameras enable the driver to have better perception in conditions of low visibility, such as at night and in fog; Blind spot detection: rear-view mirrors are affected by the blind angle a side area the driver cannot see unless they turn their head. A camera and an electronic image processing unit could serve as a vital warning system to alert rivers to a vehicle overtaking them; parking manoeuvre support: parking sensors are already widespread on many vehicles. Furthermore, some vehicles have recently been equipped with a function that detects the space between two vehicles and - if sufficient – aids manoeuvring by guiding the steering wheel.” (Ref: CO_0281)
  • “A more advanced method of delivering feedback and support is the head-up display (HUD). This is a transparent display that presents critical and relevant information to the driver without requiring him/her to look away from the road. A HUD can be used on forward displays, such as a car windshield, or in rear view/wing mirrors.” (Ref: CO_0081)
Figure 1‑86 Head-up displays

 

Source: The application of in-vehicle systems for elderly drivers. European Transport Research (Ref: CO_0081)

  • “E-Call is an automated emergency call system. An e-Call can either be generated manually by vehicle occupants or automatically through activation via in-vehicle sensors in the event of a crash. E-Call directly establishes a voice connection with the relevant emergency Public Service Answering Point (PSAP), and sends crucial information such as time and location of the accident as well as a description of the vehicle involved.” (Ref: CO_5019)
  • “Emergency Braking Systems detect the danger of an imminent rear-collision, warn the driver of a potential crash and assist in the braking process – automatically activating the brakes if there is no reaction from the driver.” (Ref: CO_5019)
  • “A final stage of ADAS[1] development could result in for example fully automated driving. Although such a concept is not plausible to become reality on a large scale in the near future, its potentials are sufficient great to conduct much research on automated driving.” (Ref: CO_5012)
  • “In the search for innovative forms of transportation, an EU-funded project (SARTRE[2]) has found a way for people to drive their cars without actually having to drive them. Known as “road trains,” a truck driven by a specially trained driver leads a procession of cars or other trucks that automatically follow steering and braking instructions being transmitted wirelessly from the escort vehicle. With their hands and feet completely free, drivers can read, eat, talk on the phone, catch up on work, write letters or watch television, if they so wish. If the lead vehicle has to turn, speed up, slow down or even brake suddenly, the action is sent instantaneously to the following vehicles, which copy the actions automatically and safely – without the need for the driver to do anything. The following cars constantly measure the lead vehicle’s location, speed and direction, and immediately adjust to any changes – no matter how slight. (...).With such complicated technology, a number of challenges – technical and otherwise – have to be worked out. Still unresolved are questions about how the vehicles would respond if the lead truck had an accident, the ideal distance between vehicles, and whether dedicated routes would be established, like traditional public transportation. An EU-wide legal framework will have to be developed to allow road trains to operate throughout Europe.” (Ref: CO_0258)
  • “Intelligent driver aids for speed control, collision avoidance and parking assistance will also progressively filter down to even the lower priced models, contributing to a safer, more relaxed driving experience.” (Ref: CO_0260)

[1] Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

[2] Safe Road Trains for the Environment

Interactions within the Technology Domain

Traffic management systems

  • “SARTRE has brought together leading-edge researchers from four countries, creating meaningful synergies that have already led to spin-off technologies in the rapidly growing field of intelligent transport.” (Ref: CO_0258)

Information systems

  • “Encouraging greater harmonisation regarding in-vehicle devices and applications will promote ITS uptake and can enhance road safety.” (Ref: CO_0280)
  • “Intellidrive[1] is a US initiative to develop transport connectivity. It aims to enable networked wireless real-time communications between vehicles, infrastructure, and drivers’ and passengers’ personal devices. At the individual level this improves safety via crash prevention and provides rich real-time information about routes, traffic and optimum drive speeds. At the system level, real-time information from thousands of vehicles will enable transportation managers to optimise the system for efficiency by adjusting signalling, lane availability, etc.” (Ref: CO_5018)

[1]    http://www.intellidriveusa.org/

Energy efficiency

  • “Fitting real-time information systems such as fuel economy computers in cars is also highly cost-effective, and provides an important reminder to drivers of the value of eco-driving on a daily basis.” (Ref: CO_0154)

Interactions with the Social Domain

Population aging

  • “Driver support systems have the potential to address either directly or indirectly the specific declines in perceptual, cognitive and physical performance by enabling a reduction in driver workload. Nevertheless, it is important to allow elderly drivers to select when and how much support they wish to receive, thereby increasing user acceptance and subsequent willingness— and capability—to improve their driving performance and road safety. A summary of these driver support systems with the potential assistance to elderly drivers is shown below.” (Ref: CO_0081)

Table 1‑2 Driver support systems for elderly drivers

Driver support systems

Assistance to elderly drivers

Adaptive Light Control (ALC)/Adaptive Front Lighting System (AFS)

Using lighting technology, sensor networks (and satellite navigation systems in the future), ALC/AFS can adjust the direction, width and depth of the headlamps’ light automatically in reaction to the surroundings, type of road, steering wheel angle, speed and movement of the vehicle.

Increase visibility at night time and bad weather; offer a better view of the road ahead, including other vehicles and obstacles in the distance.

Lane Departure Warning (LDW)

LDW is a forward-looking and vision-based system using algorithms to interpret video images to estimate the direction and lateral position and velocity of the vehicle and lane width and road curvature.

Alert the driver to drive within the lane when deviation occurs.

Intersection Assistant

Intersection assistant monitors the traffic from the right, road signs and the traffic signals at the intersections. Via a wireless communication link, it provides the driver with the status of the traffic lights and a suggested speed to allow him/her to pass the intersections safely.

Alert the driver to stop for the traffic from the right or offer speed suggestions according to the road signs/traffic signals, and then warn the driver if he/she performs inappropriately.

Lane Change Assistance (LCA) or Blind Spot Detection (BSD)

LCA or BSD continuously monitors the rear blind spots on both sides of the vehicle.

Warn the driver visually/audibly to avoid overtaking in critical situations.

Obstacle and Collision Warning (OCW)

Using radar sensors or video image processing or a combination of them, OCW monitors the area in front of the vehicle. OCW is proactive in terms of providing full braking force, arming airbags or tightening the seatbelt when needed.

Warn the driver when vehicles, cyclists, pedestrians or other obstacles on the road ahead are detected; prepare the vehicle for an imminent collision proactively to avoid the collision and/or mitigate the severity.

Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA)

Using satellite navigation technology, sensor technology, a road side beacon system and a central control system, ISA constantly monitors vehicles and the local speed limit on a road. ISA can be configured in two ways: advisory ISA and voluntary ISA.

Help the driver maintain a safe speed by alerting the driver (advisory ISA) or decelerating automatically in cooperation with traffic management systems (voluntary ISA) when the speed limit for a given road is exceeded.

Electronic Brake Assist System (EBS)

EBS can activate the maximum braking power immediately and is triggered when the driver performs fast and hard braking.

Take over the activity from the driver to avoid an accident or decrease vehicle speed at the moment of collision in order to reduce its seriousness.

Adaptive Cruise Control System(ACC)

Using a long range radar sensor, a signal processor and longitudinal control of the vehicle, ACC constantly monitors the speed of the vehicle and the distance to the vehicle ahead. It will slow down the vehicle when needed and accelerate automatically to the pre-selected speed whilst maintaining the correct distance to the vehicle ahead without requiring any action from the driver.

Take over the activity from the driver to keep a safe distance from the vehicle ahead and avoid collision. The driver can override the system at any time.

Source: The application of in-vehicle systems for elderly drivers. European Transport Research (Ref: CO_0081)

Planning

  • “Fully Automated Driving is only applied successfully in small public transport concepts. Expected is that within 5 to 10 years, Fully Automated Driving will be possible for freight transport and larger public transport systems.” (Ref: CO_5012)

Interactions with the Economy Domain

Availability of public and private resources and investments in the transport sector

  • “< SARTRE’s underlying technology can be integrated into vehicles within a few years in a cost-effective manner >, said Eric Chan, chief engineer of Ricardo, a UK-based transportation technology company that is leading the project. < And there is no need to change the road infrastructure, which would allow SARTRE vehicles to use existing highways >.” (Ref: CO_0258)

Interactions with the Environment Domain

GHG mitigation

  • “With the vehicles drafting a few metres behind each other, SARTRE – short for “Safe Road Trains for the Environment” – can cut fuel consumption by up to 20%.” (Ref: CO_0258)

Impacts on Mobility and Transport

Increasing transport safety

  • “Increasingly, however, further advances in road safety are made possible by purely electronic devices that are integrated into vehicles. Many of these are not intended to reduce the consequences of an impact in case of a crash, but to help to prevent an accident in the first place by aiding drivers, and even taking over for them, in potentially dangerous situations – hence not only protecting the lives and health of passengers and other persons in a highly efficient way, but also preventing damage.” (Ref: CO_5019)
  • “Because the sensor-based system reacts faster than people – who are the cause of 87% of traffic accidents – SARTRE[1] provides safety benefits.” (Ref: CO_0258)
  • “Driver assistance systems are approaching market entry in a number of applications. However it is not clear how they will impact on road transport, in particular on safety.” (Ref: CO_0289)

[1]www.sartre-project.eu

but...

  • “Implementing Automated Fully Driving in road traffic requires much more technological development regarding safety and new legislation by governments.” (Ref: CO_5012)

New vehicles mixing up with old ones

  • “Advances in control and guidance systems, sensor technology and interactive vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communications, many of which are at or near market readiness, will make the concept of driverless automated vehicles sharing public highways with conventional forms of transport a realistic possibility.” (Ref: CO_0260)

Decreasing congestion

  • “And SARTRE can improve how roads are utilised, since vehicles can travel very close together or drive long distances at night when roads are used less.” (Ref: CO_0258)

Raising in mileage per capita

  • “Fully Automated Driving has the highest potential to increase what we called attractiveness of a transportation system.” (Ref: CO_5012)