Information Systems


Driver description
Interactions with the Technology Domain
Interactions within the Social Domain
Interactions with the Economy Domain
Interactions with the Environment Domain
Impacts on Mobility and Transport

Driver description

  • “The key innovation that has changed transport over the last two decades is the way information has become available in real time for transport users. This revolution will continue and lead to profound changes.” (Ref: CO_0284)
  • “The technologies for real-time multi-mode travel planning, parking reservation, toll and fare payment and multi-mode navigation exist today. The rise of the “internet of things” is well underway and will include intercommunicating cars, parking spaces, buses, tramways, metros, streets, shared bicycles or other vehicles and service providers.” (Ref: CO_0284)
  • “In recent years there has been a significant increase in sales of in-car electronics devices, especially of portable navigation devices. Conservative estimates suggest that the market penetration in the EU of dynamic traffic information and navigation services, as a percentage of all road vehicles, will rise from 1.5 % in 2005 to some 9 % in 2010 and 43 % in 2020.” (Ref: CO_0280)
  • “When collecting data by video cameras it has to be ensured that legal framework conditions allow the levying of fines based on these data.” (Ref: CO_0280)
  • “It is advantageous to use consistent methodologies and standards for the data collection and the data exchange format.” (Ref: CO_0280)
  • “The development of the information and communication sector has raised high expectations in terms of the efficiency and effectiveness of doing business. ICT developments will affect the transport sector both in a direct and an indirect way. Direct impacts relate to safety and the efficient use of capacity through, for instance, the instalment of traffic management systems. Indirect effects relate to new modes of doing business (e-commerce) and new methods of work (teleworking) and are potentially more fundamental in the long-term. However the extent to which these technological changes will also result in measurable impacts within the foreseeable future largely depends on the pace of diffusion of relevant technologies, the legislative / regulatory framework within transport as well as commercial and labour market policy." (Ref: CO_2041)
  • “Services for drivers and travellers (...) cover information on traffic roads, traffic links, information presented to drivers via information tables at highways and parking lots, dynamic traffic information provided via radio, TV or Internet, information sent to vehicle drivers via RDS and GPS, mobile operator services.” (Ref: CO_0039)
  • “Increasing capacity and flexibility of ICTs together with decreasing investment and operation costs makes possible real development of cooperative systems. If traffic means communicate with one another and/or with infrastructure, quality of information related to vehicle position, velocity, weather conditions etc. increases. ICTs are considerably connected to many kinds of mobility, especially those related to traffic means.” (Ref: CO_0039)
  • “The potential benefits of route guidance, especially in terms of travel time variability, increase with the sophistication of the methods used to estimate the travel time information. However, these benefits are not without a cost. In particular, the cost of providing en-route information may be higher compared to pretrip information. In the most comprehensive form en-route information provision requires two-way communication between the traffic control center and an in-vehicle unit, and the capability to track the location of the vehicle. More limited communication can also be used, but would also result in more limited access to new information in terms of spatial and temporal availability as well as the level of detail.” (Ref: CO_5039)
  • “Intelligent digital maps are a basic requirement for a whole range of ITS tools. The problem has been that the road data needed to produce them is not always available, accurate or reliable, with a lack of rules for timely updates. This hinders Europe-wide interoperability and the development of advanced — including safety-related — ITS technologies. The challenge is to ensure easy access to the digital road databases maintained by thousands of European road authorities in a standardised, non-discriminatory and transparent way.” (Ref: CO_5049)
  • “In February 2006 (...) the Commission launched the “Intelligent Car Initiative”, to remove bottlenecks in rolling out intelligent systems and to speed the development of smarter, safer and cleaner transport for Europe. The Intelligent Car Initiative will accelerate the deployment of intelligent vehicle systems in European and international markets, using a mix of policy, research and communications instruments to: ensure interoperability across different EU countries and harmonise technical solutions through a comprehensive European approach; support ICT-based research and development in the area of transport and facilitate the take-up and use of research results; raise awareness of the potential benefits of ICT-based solutions among consumers and decision-makers.” (Ref: CO_0255)
  • “Variable Message Signs (VMS) are electronic traffic signs that allow the TCC[1] to distribute information concerning particular events in a timely fashion. Such signs can warn of traffic congestion, accidents and incidents, roadworks or speed limits on a specific highway segment.” (Ref: CO_0281)
  • “There is still a need to provide information through other media when existing or potential customers do not have access to mobile phones or smartphones.” (Ref: CO_0287)

[1] Traffic Control Centre

Interactions within the Technology Domain

New vehicle design

  • “According to some estimates, 90% of all automotive innovations stem from the electronics sector (not counting drive designs). It has to emphasised that in the future, cars will be increasingly software-based. IT is essential when it comes to driver assistance systems ranging from night vision to automated parking and collision warning systems; it delivers new software and protocols for car-to-car communication and new traffic control systems; it promises to integrate the multitude of controlling systems using an IP-based on-board network; and it enables new services, e.g. solving issues by remote maintenance.” (Ref: CO_0005)
  •  “Conversion to electronic steering modelled on airplanes (“X by wire”) also promises considerable reductions in weight.” (Ref: CO_0005)

Advance driving devices

  • “A new generation of control technology is already changing long established practices in railway operations. Combining electronic interlocking with advanced computerised control systems provides the basis for automation of traffic management on the railway. An extension of such technology facilitates multi-media communication of traffic information to customers. Ultimately, such systems would combine operational control including the monitoring and correction of real-time performance, such as energy use, and the allocation of resources in terms of vehicles, infrastructure and staff. These systems would embrace on-board signalling and train control with automatic vehicle identification and continuous track-to-train communication. The final logical step would be the automation of train driving and driverless trains as used in some forms of urban transit.” Ref: CO_0272)
  • “In the longer term, vehicles will talk to each other and to infrastructure.” (Ref: CO_0015)

Traffic management system

  • “Cities (...) are already deploying (...) technologies to provide travellers with ubiquitous information about travel options. These same systems can be used to manage traffic on both road and public transport networks.” (Ref: CO_0284)
  • “Putting information available on an open platform accessible to everyone is likely to help accelerate innovation in intelligent infrastructure.” (Ref: CO_0284)
  • “Besides passenger information, these systems [public transport information] can also be used for successful fleet management.” (Ref: CO_0286)
  • “ERTRAC[1] predicts that, as well as receiving mobility information from various service providers, the on-line urban consumer will actively and passively reciprocate with feedback that will enable services to be aligned ever more closely with evolving patterns of use. It is estimated that making the most of the opportunities presented by multimodal systems could bring a 20 % to 30 % gain in usable road capacity.” (Ref: CO_0260)

[1] European Road Transport Research Advisory Council

Booking and Payment systems

  • “Mobile technologies could be exploited in the development of payment systems to generate new methods of payment and service packages com­bining public transport tickets and other services of interest to customers.” (Ref: CO_0004)
  • “Multimodal traffic and travel information services will grow in quality and quantity – with mobile handsets becoming increasingly powerful personal mobility terminals. Travel guidance, on-line booking and payment facilities will be combined with location-based Web 2.0 applications to facilitate ride-sharing, data collection and information exchange via mushrooming social networking websites.” (Ref: CO_0261)


  • “Intelligent Transport Systems provide technology that permits users to address security concerns through the use of GPS (or other positioning technology), wired and wireless communications and improved sensors and information systems. Intelligent Transport Systems can monitor the contents and locations of containers, monitor the cargo and routes taken by trucks, track the location and status of public transport vehicles, and generally support, simplify, and increase the visibility of transport logistics. This is an area in which increased security can facilitate efficiency and productivity by standardising and integrating processes for managing the transport of people and cargoes.” (Ref: CO_0281)

Energy efficiency

  • “Intelligent Transport Systems will help to reduce the wasted time and energy by optimising trips, reducing congestion, improving vehicle and driver performance and fostering better the management of the transportation system as a whole. The optimisation of the transport system will result in energy savings (...).” (Ref: CO_0281)

Interactions with the Social Domain

  • “(...) the social impact of ICT has no revolutionary but an evolutionary nature. From a technical point of view ICT may be revolutionary, but her societal impact is not of that nature. This does not rule out that ICT contributes to important societal transformations. With ten contemporary trends it was observed that they are reinforced by ICT. Without ICT they would also have occurred, though to a lesser extent. This would have led to major problems in a number of societal domains such as a congestion of social and economic exchange and all kinds of organizational processes.” (Ref: CO_2018)

Population ageing

  • “Mobility is of key importance to people with special needs, including the elderly, the poor, people with disabilities and people who live in remote areas. (...) Intelligent Transport Systems include many methods for enhancing the mobility of people and freight in all transportation modes.” (Ref: CO_0281)
  • “When establishing an information system for public transport, people with reduced mobility can benefit especially from this as the services usually offer special services for them (e.g. voice information from speakers outside of the vehicles).” (Ref: CO_0286)
  • “The term telecare is generally used to refer to remote social care and support for independent living for older people, with the focus more on social as opposed to medical needs. Three 'generations' of telecare can be distinguished - first generation telecare (often called 'social alarms'), involving systems that enable older people to easily call for help in case of emergency; second generation telecare, involving additional home environment sensors that enable alerts to be triggered automatically; and third generation telecare, involving more extensive monitoring of activity and lifestyle. A core emphasis of telecare is on safety and security, in the context of a more general aim to enable older people to remain living independently in their own homes for as long as possible.” (Ref: CO_2018)

Migration flows

  • “Use and employment of communication media take a central function within the migration process. The manner of communication and access to information do not only influence the movement itself, but they also shape the formation of ethnic communities at the destination.” (Ref: CO_2018)
  • “It could be assumed that the Internet offers young immigrants the possibility to overcome the physical distance between home and destination country, by allowing them to maintain the same sets of relationships as prior to the movement – with the only difference that social interaction would now mainly or exclusively taking place in the virtual domain.” (Ref: CO_2018)

Car ownership

  • “Whip car is the world’s first peer-to-peer car rental service. Car owners can rent out their own cars when they aren’t using them. Users can search for and hire cars in their neighbourhoods. This is a distributed and flexible system that uses existing cars, mediated by a trusted website with a ratings system, and requires no additional physical infrastructure.” (Ref: CO_5018)


  • “(...) information systems could lead to a pattern of distributed human settlements as a superior way of organisation, giving rise to a landscape of scattered new homogeneous motorized neighbourhoods, in which charges would be paid, as needed, to keep down congestion and CO2 emissions.” (Ref: CO_5048)
  • “ITS applications can play an important role in transport, especially in more urban areas.” (Ref: CO_0281)
  • “Yet seamless inter-modal mobility services cannot be deployed everywhere, they require relatively dense urban areas for commercial viability.” (Ref: CO_0284)


  • “ICT will provide a huge amount of real-time information from low-cost, reliable sensors (cameras, parking spot detector, traffic loop detector, GPS and Galileo, Bluetooth in cellular phones, etc.) but ‘intelligence’ (scientifically sound research and innovation) should still be developed in order to obtain intelligent transport systems (ITS).” (Ref: CO_5005)

Change of lifestyle and values

  • “Evidently, ICT very much enables to conduct a life with so much complexity and choice.” (Ref: CO_2018)
  • “It has often been observed that ICTs enable work to be brought to the worker (telework) instead of transporting workers to work (commuting).” (Ref: CO_2018)
  • “(...) the new media enable an individualized existence and lifestyle. Simultaneously, these media maintain the possibility to keep in touch with employers and colleagues at work being on the road or working at home. These days appointments for our overfull calendars of leisure spending can only be realized with the aid of cars and modern communication means such as mobile phones, PDA’s and e-mail.” (Ref: CO_2018)
  • “Research on new areas such as human behaviour is therefore critical to successful ITS implementation.” (Ref: CO_0284)


  • “Most research of digital media access, that often deals with the so-called digital divide shows that there is a strong correlation between access and personal or positional characteristics of people (Norris, 2001; Mossberger et al., 2003 and van Dijk, 2005). Primarily education, age and societal position appear to be important. Considering physical new media access income still plays a role caused by the regular expenses for purchase of new hardware and software and usage costs that have to be made. People that need ICT for their work or education have a much higher chance of having physical access.” (Ref: CO_2018)
  • “At present, citizens do not make the most effective use of all the available transport modes – either because they are unaware of them, or because they face difficulties in obtaining information in an appropriate form to permit interconnected travel.” (Ref: CO_0260)
  • “Some users are not skilled on the use of mobile devices.” (Ref: CO_0287)
  • “Many travellers still do not have access to the internet or cell phones. Others face real cognitive difficulties in assimilating map and trip guidance information. Others still have physical disabilities which make it difficult for them to use multiple travel modes. Innovation must ensure that these impediments do not render travel information or options inaccessible.” (Ref: CO_0284)
  • “Communication with the public is necessary to overcome negative reactions and to counteract the possible refusal of the measures caused by the fear of loss of privacy.” (Ref: CO_0255)
  • “General information, education and marketing campaigns for clean public transport can also be used to raise awareness concerning the new information services among the residents.” (Ref: CO_0286)


  • “The availability of new communication systems and organisational means will enhance the abilities of road operators and the emergency services. Intelligent Transport Systems will be able to pinpoint an accident, help determine the extent of injuries sustained, direct emergency vehicles to the accident site more quickly and find the best route to hospitals, allowing the flow of traffic to return to normal conditions more quickly.” (Ref: CO_0281)

Interactions with the Economy Domain


  • “It is also possible to provide links with employers’ intranet sites to give tailored travel information including real-time passenger information.” (Ref: CO_0286)

Regional differences in economics

  • “In many cases, it is more economical for developing countries to import technology from developed countries than to develop the technology domestically. However, there are some cases in which the demand for IT-related equipment, including ITS equipment, can help foster new domestic industries for manufacturing this equipment. This works best in developing countries that already have at least some base IT industry in place. In addition, ITS equipment and systems require maintenance and renovation throughout their life cycle, some of which can often be provided by domestic resources. This can also help build the IT base in developing countries. Plans for developing these industries can be made during the introduction of ITS.” (Ref: CO_0281)

Availability of public and private resources and investments in the transport sector

  • “Many stand to gain from efforts at European level to promote ITS, including transport users, the logistics and transport industry, industry involved in ITS and — thanks to a cleaner, more efficient and safer and more secure transport system — society at large.” (Ref: CO_0280)
  • “Individuals can benefit from less congestion and reduced travel times effected by the improved traffic management. Fewer people are injured in traffic accidents, reducing personal harm and associated costs.” (Ref: CO_0279)
  • “More specifically, studies have shown that the use of ICT could enable the number of accidents in the European Union (EU) to be reduced considerably. For example, 1.500 accidents a year could be avoided if 0.6% of vehicles were equipped with systems helping them to stay in lane or to overtake.” (Ref: CO_0255)
  • “Goods delivery companies introduce ITS often because they especially benefit from the combination of GPS-techniques with existing logistics programmes. The use of logistics software can significantly increase the efficiency of delivery trips.” (Ref: CO_0279)
  • “Public transport companies and public transport authorities achieve a better image when providing real-time information and when using innovative information systems in their communication with the users, resulting in higher customer satisfaction. The possibility of higher income might be a long-term benefit when the measures result in higher demand for public transport.” (Ref: CO_0286)
  • “As (...) ITS technologies are taken up faster and are more widely used, economies of scale are likely to bring down their cost to the benefit of both citizens and professionals.” (Ref: CO_0280)

Market regulations

  • “(...) the potential for intelligent transport systems can only be fully realised in Europe if we move from a limited and fragmented approach to a coordinated one.” (Ref: CO_0284)
  • “The greatest barrier to the development of seamless passenger services is the slow pace of innovation in regulatory structures and transport operators. Greater acceptance of new concepts and adapting regulation to rapidly changing business models are necessary and political leadership and buy-in from key operators is essential.” (Ref: CO_0284)
  • “Reaping the benefits of technological advances will require changing how we do things, e.g. by sharing data and infrastructure, or accepting different regulatory models and different attitudes to risk acceptance. For example, private sector telecom and navigation companies collect a huge amount of real time data from their customers which can be used by government agencies for improving traffic information and management services.” (Ref: CO_0284)

Foreign trade, globalisation

  • “That ICT supports globalization, is a statement almost everybody takes for granted, Globalization is no new phenomenon either. It has occurred in many waves since the Western colonization of the world (Bayly, 2004). Each time progress in information and communication technologies offers a strong support.” (Ref: CO_2018)
  • “Information is the key to a globalised, outsourced economy, and the entire supply chain depends on effective management of the information flow.” (Ref: CO_0284)

Interactions with the Environment Domain

GHG mitigation

  • “Information and communication technologies can be used to improve mobility and reduce transport GHG emissions. Incremental enhancements include: automating urban traffic signals to streamline traffic and reduce stop and go conditions; implementing integrated smart cards to facilitate multimodal travel and increase transit use; provide real time traffic data to traffic managers and vehicle users to improve efficiency. More substantial changes are possible by creating entirely new modes of travel, such as smart car sharing that allows convenient short term rentals, smart paratransit that provides door to door service without advanced reservations, and dynamic ride sharing that facilitates organised ride sharing.” (Ref: CO_0148)

Pollution levels and emission standards

  • “Real-time traffic information for drivers helps fighting congestion, reducing bottlenecks and pollution.” (Ref: CO_0280)

Impacts on Mobility and Transport

 Increasing in travels’ distance

  • “In general, the technological opportunities provided by the development if ICT can influence transport demand in several directions, depending on the directions that society take. Assuming the continuation in the long term scenario of the trend emerging over the past years, e.g. reducing but stable economic growth, sustained international trade, urbanization, etc, a summary of the ICT impacts, separately on passenger and freight transport demand, can be summarised as follows. For passenger transport: (…) reduction in travel frequency; but perhaps longer distance travel (when individuals move further from work, due the globalisation trends) and also substitution of work travel with other travel (with time saved by not travelling to work), due to widespread diffusion of flexible and remote working technologies, (…) but may add to journey distance, due to real-time route guidance and hazard warning.“ (Ref: CO_0034)

Increasing transport demand...

  • “Increasing mobility is a deeply rooted trend in modern society. By itself it has no relationship at all with ICT. Instead it has many social causes (Mokhtarian et al., 2004). On the field of demographics we are able to observe the shrinking household and the rise of the number of people living alone that drive people outdoors for social life and assistance. In the economy the geographical scale of labour processes is expanding and labour participation of women and housewives is rising. The growth of income and car ownership enable unimpeded travelling for work, study and leisure time. In a cultural respect spending leisure time outdoors is intensified and varied. ICT strongly supports all these trends.” (Ref: CO_2018)
  • “The primary effect of ICT in transport consists in enabling development of more intelligent vehicles, more sophisticated telematic services and improvement of ITSs to be applied in traffic control and road infrastructure. Telematics and innovative logistics based on ICTs are able to increase traffic flows by preventing congestions, even in the existing infrastructure” (Ref: CO_0039)
  • “In general, the technological opportunities provided by the development if ICT can influence transport demand in several directions, depending on the directions that society take. Assuming the continuation in the long term scenario of the trend emerging over the past years, e.g. reducing but stable economic growth, sustained international trade, urbanization, etc, a summary of the ICT impacts, separately on passenger and freight transport demand, can be summarised as follows. For passenger transport: more long-distance travel for business meetings and services by air due to the new opportunities favoured by new technologies (transport cost reductions).“ (Ref: CO_0034)

even if…

  •  “(…) ICT (…) reduces the need for individuals to travel for many transactions, but may also lead to new journeys to replace the ones that would have been necessary in the absence of the e-activity or to completely new demand resulting from social networking.” (Ref: CO_0034)

...the limit could be humans

  •  “(...) the trend of increasing mobility will only be reinforced more by ICT in the future. Until this trend also reaches its limits. Mobility will collide with the physical limitations of humans to be on the road all of the time, the material restrictions of rising transport costs and the limits of ecological non-sustainability.” (Ref: CO_2018)

Improving air transport and maritime efficiency

  • “There is a lot of old technology behind air traffic management. The link between air space and ground control is particularly weak, still reliant on analogue voice radio. The suite of technologies needed is available now. These include transmitting detailed flight plan revisions to pilots in real time to avoid storms and aircraft location technology so planes can interact and fly closely spaced on very precise routes. Managing the transition process is more complicated than developing the technologies. Some delay results from ensuring systems are forward and backward compatible, necessary because of the great range of plane generations in the skies. Some lag is due to attitudes that fail to embrace technology, for example the need to move away from a sector-by-sector air space control system. (...) Gate-to-gate management will become increasingly important. Three quarters of the delays are on the ground or a result of delays to earlier legs of a plane’s rotation. Getting ground side transport information integrated into system could make a big difference. It is clear that innovation in air traffic management will be able to successfully cope with the massive increase in demand for air travel. Managing delays on the ground, in airports, is a tougher challenge, and financial sustainability is the toughest challenge of all for the sector.” (Ref: CO_0284)
  • “Flagship[1], an EU-funded consortium of more than 40 European maritime organisations,(...) has been able to come up with a number of cross-border innovations. One example of such cross-border innovation, developed by researchers, that could generate considerable savings is an automated computerised system to help ship operators fill in forms that they need to send to port authorities.(...) If every European ship used automated form filling, this could lead to a total time cost saving in the region of €8.94 million per year (..). In a nutshell, the beauty of the real-time scheduling system for containers is that it can help companies ensure, for example, that trucks do not drive to or around ports empty. (...). But it is not just companies that can benefit in terms of savings. The wider public can benefit too because the system will mean lower emissions of CO2. “The direct public benefit is a reduction in congestion with 10% fewer truck movements now for the same volume of goods and a 10% reduction in CO2 emissions”” (Ref: CO_0258)


Increasing transport safety

  • “Information can also be used to help drivers through co-operative safety systems that help them to avoid accidents by using data from other vehicles in the same area.” (Ref: CO_0284)
  • “The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in building intelligent cars can contribute towards increasing road safety by these elements: making transport systems more efficient; using fuel more efficiently; helping drivers to prevent or avoid accidents; providing drivers with real-time information about the road network in order to avoid congestion; enabling drivers to optimise journeys.” (Ref: CO_0255)
  • “To meet the challenges of achieving virtually accident-free, clean and efficient mobility through ITS, it is crucial that all elements of transport systems are able to communicate and cooperate in exchanging real-time information. Bi-directional communication is needed from vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I). This requires the development of a communication architecture that provides a common frame for cooperative systems to work together. Examples of applications based on cooperative systems that are currently under development are: traffic control and management, intersection collision warning,” (Ref: CO_0261)
  • “Intelligent infrastructure technologies are therefore also needed to give drivers safety-related information on the broader road infrastructure and traffic situation.” (Ref: CO_0266)
  • “Indeed, ITS systems can save lives: it is estimated that two technologies alone — the electronic stability control driver assistance system and the pan-European in-vehicle emergency call system eCall — could save 6.500 lives per year in the EU when fully deployed. Driver assistance and other safety systems, navigation and tracking and tracing systems all have a role when it comes to promoting transport safety.” (Ref: CO_0280)
  • “An increasing amount of data is being presented to drivers. This is not always particularly useful, and sometimes may even be detrimental to safety. Research is looking at the needs of drivers in terms of content, presentation, availability, reliability, timing and hierarchy of the information provided.” (Ref: CO_0289)

More conscious mobility

  • “The way people move within the city context changes with the development of transportation systems, information and communication technologies.” (Ref: CO_2037)
  • “Traffic and travel information services allow Europeans to make well-informed decisions both before and during their journeys.” (Ref: CO_5049)
  • “Access will be made easier still with the advent of more comprehensive multi-modal timetables, and journey planners embracing options such as walking and cycling, all drawing on real-time travel and traffic information as necessary to ensure optimal accuracy.” (Ref: CO_0260)
  • “Informal, peer-to-peer and crowd-sourced car-sharing sites build on the same premise, as emerging internet services can multiply mobility options and further reduce car use without reducing access to cars or overall mobility.” (Ref: CO_5019)
  • “Mobile communications will also permit en-route customers to be updated via mobile phone or computer with information regarding delays, schedule changes and other critical matters.” (Ref: CO_0260)

Encouraging and improving inter-modality and co-modality

  • “Intelligent transport systems are also a key enabler of the integration of different transport modes to provide door-to-door transport services.” (Ref: CO_0289)
  • “(...) The most promising market segment for additional services is real-time travel-information, since far more people were interested in this service than en-route-information to the final destination (...). This makes sense, since “travel information (...) can minimize the inconvenience of using public transport by making it easier to plan and execute a journey,” especially with multi-modal journeys.” (Ref: CO_5040)
  • “The availability of efficient information and the possibility of a smart road transport system allows for the promotion of a pro-active exchange of information and services with other modes of transport, promoting an integration of the capabilities of the different modes.” (Ref: CO_0281)
  • “(...) in many parts of Europe, ITS technologies are already being used to improve transport management operations and facilitate interchange between modes — notably between road and rail. This encourages co-modality.” (Ref: CO_0280)
  • “The potential of intelligent transport infrastructure depends on the capability to bring maximum benefits to the user. Many users require seamless and reliable transport from origin to destination, regardless of the mode. Users and freight operators can be assisted with dynamic route guidance to make a multi-modal trip, saving money and time.” (Ref: CO_0284)
  • “By providing integrated information, intermodality can also be supported.” (Ref: CO_0286)

Improving efficiency and attractiveness of  public transport

  • “In general, the technological opportunities provided by the development if ICT can influence transport demand in several directions, depending on the directions that society take. Assuming the continuation in the long term scenario of the trend emerging over the past years, e.g. reducing but stable economic growth, sustained international trade, urbanization, etc, a summary of the ICT impacts, separately on passenger and freight transport demand, can be summarised as follows. For passenger transport: (…) modal shift in favour of public transport, due to new technologies (Integrated public transport planning information, e.g. real time information on bus schedules).“ (Ref: CO_0034)
  • “Advances in smart phone technology also facilitate the provision of real-time information on the availability of public transport services, provid­ed that the technology is comprehensively deployed when developing the information system for all pub­lic transport.” (Ref: CO_0004)
  • “Receiving the right information at the right time and in the right place is critical for successful urban public transport, especially in a multimodal transport system. It is hard to imagine the existence of flexible and high-quality urban public transport without the deployment of ITS.” (Ref: CO_0281)
  • “By improving the information on the public transport system, public transport can develop as a real alternative to private car use.” (Ref: CO_0286)
  • “One key missing link is useable and transparent information on public transport routes, schedules, and especially, fares.” (Ref: CO_0284)