Monitoring

Summary

Driver description
Interactions with the Technology Domain
Interactions within the Social Domain
Interactions with the Economy Domain
Interactions with the Environment Domain
Impacts on Mobility and Transport

Driver description

  • “In order to continuously monitor motorway conditions, road operators install detectors capable of collecting information on the operation’s main points of interest: traffic, weather and environmental monitoring. The video monitoring system for road traffic is a network composed of remotely operated Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras.” (Ref: CO_0281)
  • “Blind Spot Monitoring Systems detects other vehicles moving into the sensitive “blind spot” zone towards the back and sides of a car and alerts the driver of the potential danger.” (Ref: CO_5019)
  • “On-board diagnostic systems monitor all the emission controls on a vehicle and warn the driver, through instrument panel displays, of any faults that may occur. These systems have become mandatory for new passenger motor vehicles in the United States.” (Ref: CO_0272)
  • “Even greater opportunities for detecting malfunctioning vehicles is provided by the use of transponders to allow roadside units to monitor the condition of vehicles as they drive by. Within 20 years, these systems could be installed in sufficient numbers to render inspection and maintenance programs unnecessary.” (Ref: CO_0272)
  • “Increases in world trade flows mean that more and more ships are sailing on the high seas. As a result, ships are increasingly being monitored and controlled and the crew needs to send a growing number of reports and other data to various shore authorities.” (Ref: CO_0258)
  • “For huge cargo vessels that carry millions of litres of oil, thousands of shipping containers, or tens of thousands of tonnes of coal or steel, safety is paramount. These ships must comply with rising safety standards that require time-consuming inspections by surveyors, who in turn risk their own safety by climbing inside massive cargo areas and on scaffolding constructed around ships. To help save time and money, and improve the accuracy and quality of these important inspections, an EU-funded research project has developed a fleet of remote-controlled robots that crawl through cargo ships in search of cracks, corrosion and other defects. (...) The project, known as MINOAS [1](Marine INspection rObotic Assistant System), holds the potential to make ships safer while also extending their life at sea.” (Ref: CO_0258)

[1]    www.minoasproject.eu

Interactions within the Technology Domain

Advanced driving devices

  • “Traditionally, road safety systems could be divided into passive systems (which protect road users in case of an accident), and active systems (which are designed to prevent an accident from happening in the first place). Today, however, the line between active and passive safety is increasingly blurred. New systems are being developed which use sensors such as radars, cameras, lidar, real-time video processing systems, ultrasound or infrared to detect potentially dangerous situations on the road. Based on what they see, the systems are able to take actions to avoid the crash. If a crash is unavoidable, the car can intervene to reduce the impacts of the crash on the car occupants by braking to reduce the car’s speed, tightening seatbelts and deploying airbags.” (Ref: CO_0266)

Traffic management systems

  • “To optimise the traffic and passenger flows and to improve system management, integrated real-time information on the traffic situation in the urban area (e.g. concerning parking spaces, congestion, public transport) can be provided. To achieve these goals, as a first step systems are needed to collect data on the conditions of the transport network. Amongst others, data can be collected by: automated systems, such as automatic traffic count sites (e.g. automatic number plate recognition systems, congestion monitoring loop detectors in the surface of the roads); CCTV (Closed Circuit Television), which means the use of video cameras transmitting information to a set of monitors; using data from different sources and actors (police, medical emergency department, injuries, etc.) collected with a uniform methodology for measuring a coherent set of performance indicators to give a complete picture of road operating characteristics but also taking into account data security.” (Ref: CO_0279)
  • “(...) a TCC[1] can also benefit from a numerical count given by traffic detection systems made up of sensors. These sensors use various technologies inductive loops placed under the road surface, radar sensors, “cooperative” vehiclemounted units, etc.); and are designed to perform the real-time, precise monitoring of vehicles in terms of traffic volumes and types of vehicle in transit. Data is collected, registered and computed by local units that transmit the information to the TCC. In doing so, the TCC is able to perform realtime traffic management according to current traffic volumes.” (Ref: CO_0281)

[1] Traffic Control Centres

Energy efficiency

  • “New technologies have an important role to play in enabling improvements in the maintenance of road vehicles. Better maintained vehicles will be able to operate close to their rated energy efficiency.” (Ref: CO_0272)

Interactions with the Social Domain

Planning

  • “Governments should adopt regular monitoring of the performance of the transport system as an integral part of the planning process, and they should use the resulting information to assess the effectiveness of the policies implemented and the nature of the problems still to be tackled. The data collected should reflect the policy objectives and desired outcomes, and they should be consistent with any targets set.” (Ref: CO_0054).

Interactions with the Economy Domain

No particularly relevant interrelationships have been found.

Interactions with the Environment Domain

No particularly relevant interrelationships have been found.

Impacts on Mobility and Transport

Increasing transport safety

  • “Automated speed cameras have proved their worth in many countries and need to be promoted to showcase their effectiveness.” (Ref: CO_5019)
  • “Now, thanks to advances in technology, researchers can monitor drivers in their natural environment, i.e. their own cars. These ‘naturalistic driving’ studies rely on miniature cameras and other tiny sensors to gather data on when and how hard drivers brake and accelerate, as well as where they are looking, for example. Small data storage devices retain the information, while developments in software make it easier for researchers to analyse the information. The benefits of these studies are immense. In naturalistic driving you can actually be there, so you can see what happened, what condition the driver was in 10 minutes before the accident, and what kind of manoeuvres he undertook to try to prevent the accident.” (Ref: CO_0266)
  • “Advanced vehicle safety features could be significantly improved by the development and integration of new sensor systems. Sensors provide information on what is going on in the immediate vicinity of the vehicle.” (Ref: CO_0266)