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Therefore it is up to the farmer to find the best time for mating rabbits. One of the main fe atures of breeding rabbits compared to other mammals lies in the fact that rabbit does do not go through specific heating periods.


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Please read and accept the terms fertile and mating conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. revealed that during the periovulatory phase i. No such pattern was found for partnered women. Unintended pregnancies pose a problem in the United States and across the globe. Approximately, half of the pregnancies in the United States are unintended, with 2. For instance, the unintended pregnancy rate for women with incomes below the federal poverty line is more than 5 times the rate for higher income women.

Although these factors undoubtedly contribute to the association between low SES and unintended pregnancy, we propose that this relationship could potentially reflect the contingent expression of life history strategy responses to internal cues of fertility.

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That is, single women from lower SES backgrounds may be prompted to pursue short-term sexual behavior at high fertility to expedite reproductive goals. The current research examines the link between fertility, relationship status, and the expression of life history strategies. Specifically, we predicted that during the periovulatory phase, single women from lower SES childhood environments would report an increased desire for short-term mating—a shift that would facilitate earlier reproduction.

Conversely, we predicted that single women from higher SES environments would exhibit a decreased desire for short-term mating during the periovulatory phase—a shift that would prevent earlier reproduction.

Female fertile phase synchrony, and male mating and reproductive skew, in the crested macaque

Because energy and somatic resources are inherently limited, life history theory predicts that organisms face important trade-offs in how they allocate these resources to life tasks, such as growth, maintenance, reproduction, and parental care. How and when organisms resolve these trade-offs constitutes their life history strategy. For example, early-life environments characterized by high levels of psychosocial stress and unpredictability e.

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Faster life history strategies are characterized by expedited physiological and sexual development e. This pattern is particularly evident in wealthier societies where the poor have access to adequate nutrition and health care; lower SES women do not have the metabolic resources necessary to devote to expedited sexual development in societies with severe social class disparities in standards of living for a discussion, see, e. Early-life environments that are more benign and predictable, on the other hand, tend to encourage slower life history strategies characterized by a prolonged developmental period, rendering the individuals better able to compete for resources as adults Ellis et al.

Conversely, those from higher SES environments respond to these cues by wanting to delay reproduction, a characteristic of a slower life history strategy. The human ovulatory cycle spans, on average, 28 days.

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During this time, there are only approximately 7 days in which a woman is fertile and can become pregnant. This period occurs mid-cycle and is known as the periovulatory phase of the cycle. Because women can only reproduce during periods of high fertility i.

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For example, near ovulation, women experience increased sexual desire Bullivant et al. However, the state of this research is somewhat inconclusive. Specifically, women from low childhood SES environments should exhibit psychological and behavioral shifts that are consistent with a faster life history strategy, increasing mating effort at times when conception is possible. Conversely, women from higher childhood SES environments should exhibit psychological and behavioral shifts consistent with decreased mating effort at times when conception is possible.

Supporting this hypothesis, research finds that partnered women from low SES environments experience an increase in attraction to their current partner at high fertility Dinh et al.

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This view is supported by existing research. For example, research finds that ovulatory effects are stronger for single than partnered women when it comes to mate attraction behaviors Durante et al. Concurrently, they were given a paper doll and asked to draw an outfit that they would wear to the party.

Ovulation as a male mating prime: subtle s of women's fertility influence men's mating cognition and behavior

The showed that, at high fertility, single women preferred clothing that revealed more skin, an effect not found in partnered women. This research suggests that single women may exhibit stronger mate attraction behaviors than partnered women at high fertility. Here, we build on prior research by examining the relationship between life history strategy measured vihood SES as in Griskevicius et al. Specifically, for women who grew up in more unpredictable, lower SES environments, ovulation should prompt psychological shifts that encourage behaviors consistent with faster life history strategies and more immediate reproductive goals.

Conversely, for women who grew up in more predictable, higher SES environments, ovulation should prompt psychological shifts that encourage behaviors consistent with slower life history strategies and delayed reproductive goals. Although partnered women can expedite reproductive goals by engaging in sexual behavior with their existing partners, single women do not have this as an option.

How can we ensure that the doe is sufficiently receptive before mating?

Single women can only expedite reproductive goals by increasing their willingness to engage in short-term sexual behaviors. Accordingly, the hormonal fluctuations associated with high fertility across fertile and mating cycle may lead single women from lower childhood SES environments to pursue short-term sexual opportunities as a means of helping meet the expedited reproductive strategies favored among those with faster life history strategies. Conversely, single women from higher SES childhood environments may avoid short-term sexual behavior at high fertility as a means of helping ensure pregnancy prevention, consistent with their slower life history strategy.

We tested the relationship between childhood SES, relationship status, and internal fertility cues in two studies. Using a within-subjects de thus allows us to determine whether women do experience a fertility-dependent shift in short-term mating desires. To this end, following recommendations made by Gangestad and colleagueswe recruited a broad sample of women and estimated fertility using the reverse cycle day RCD method to predict the day of ovulation for each participant.

Participants were compensated with a small monetary payment. All participants reported regular monthly menstrual cycles and indicated that they were not on hormonal contraception. Following research Durante et al.

Thus, the final sample consisted of women mean age of To estimate fertility, we obtained from participants 1 the start date of their last menstrual period and the menstrual period, 2 the expected start date of their next menstrual period, and 3 the typical length of their menstrual cycle. We then used the RCD method to predict the day of ovulation for each participant Gangestad et al.

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Following recommendations on the most valid methods for estimating fertility in cross-sectional data Gangestad et al. Each participant was ased a value from 0 to. Conception probability was mean centered prior to analysis.

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Please indicate a percentage in increments that best corresponds to your estimate of the probabilities of occurrence for the event. As a measure of life history strategy, we included items assessing childhood SES, using 2 items from research Griskevicius et al. The composite was mean centered prior to analyses.

Figure 1. Likelihood of engaging in a one-night stand as a function of fertility, childhood socioeconomic status, and relationship status Study 1. However, this two-way interaction was qualified by the predicted three-way interaction between these variables with fertility status, making it necessary to be cautious in the interpretation of this result.

Life history, fertility, and short-term mating motivation

Consistent with our hypothesis, these show that, at high fertility, single women from low childhood SES environments i. This pattern was not found for single women from high childhood SES environments i. While the of Study 1 provide initial support for our hypothesis, these are not without important limitations. Namely, the total sample of single women is relatively small, especially given the specifications for adequate power laid out by Gangestad and colleagues As such, these should be treated somewhat cautiously.

Feed, environment what factors influence rabbit mating success?

We sought to address this concern in Study 2, by running a more powerful within-subjects de and collecting a more equal sample of single and paired women. The goal of Study 2 was to conceptually replicate the effect found in Study 1 using a more rigorous approach. Specifically, whereas Study 1 utilized a between-subjects de, Study 2 used a within-subjects de, obtaining measurements for each participant twice: at both low and high levels of fertility.

Having such repeated measurements is crucial to investigate how fertility and childhood SES tly determine the hypothesized shift in short-term mating motives as women go from low to high periods of fertility. We recruited 86 heterosexual female students at a large public university in the United States as part of a larger study on fertility, relationship status, and decision-making.

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Fifteen participants were eliminated because they either did not complete all dependent measures or we were not able to confirm ovulation. Thus, data for 71 women were used for analyses mean age of Women who were not on hormonal contraceptives e. Women were told that the study was about relationships, decision-making, and health.

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Women who qualified for the study i. Specifically, women reported 1 the start date of their last menstrual period and the menstrual period, 2 the expected start date of their next menstrual period, and 3 the typical length of their menstrual cycle.

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Based on this information, women were scheduled to come into the lab for two experimental sessions—one on an expected high-fertility day and one on an expected low-fertility day; Similar to studies that have utilized this type of within-subject methodology e. Furthermore, the pattern reported in the remains ificant when controlling for order of testing session. To determine the high-fertility testing session date, women completed over-the-counter urine applicator tests www.

The first urine test was scheduled 2 days before the expected day of ovulation. If an LH surge was not detected, women came back each day until an LH surge was detected or seven tests had been completed. Once the LH surge was detected, participants completed high-fertility testing on that day or the following day, if possible.

All participants completed their high-fertility session on the day of their LH surge or over the 2 days following the LH surge.

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Women's reproductive fertility peaks for a few days in the middle of their cycle around ovulation.


In numerous primates living in mixed-sex groups, females display probabilistic cues of fertility to simultaneously concentrate paternity to dominant males while diluting it amongst others as a means to reduce the risk of infanticide and to increase male care for offspring.


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The eggs laid by outbred females have been collected from the time of mating until the death of the females, and the proportion of eggs hatching recorded.